Single software package for unified user interface, business, and data layers in 1-tier architecture

1 Tier Architecture Example

1 tier architecture is the one in which all layers of an application are available at the same client system. This includes the Presentation layer, Business Layer and Data layer.

This is a simple and cost-efficient architecture model. For example, MP3 players and MS Office are based on this type of architecture.

Presentation Layer

The Presentation Layer translates data into a format usable by the receiving system. This includes formatting numbers and characters into a binary code so that two computers with dissimilar encoding schemes can communicate reliably. Data compression can also take place here to reduce the number of bits that need to be transmitted over the network.

For example, if one computer sends a message to another that contains ASCII codes but the recipient’s system only understands EBCDIC, the Presentation Layer will translate the ASCII to EBCDIC before sending it. It is also responsible for ensuring that the data being transmitted is securely encrypted so that intruders cannot intercept it.

The Presentation Layer also handles a number of other functions, such as allowing the user to login to a website and selecting the doctor with whom they would like to schedule an appointment. One of the perks of the n-tier architecture is that changes to one layer can be made without touching the other layers.

Business Layer

The business layer, sometimes called the logic tier or middle tier, handles the business processes of an application. This layer handles logical operations like validations, calculations and data processing. It also houses information on the application. It may rely on the persistence layer to manage the application’s data. Alternatively, this layer can use its own mechanisms for managing data to reduce reliance on the persistence layer.

This tier can also act as an intermediary between the client and server, reducing security risks. When users submit requests, the middle tier can filter out any malicious data and pass only legitimate request to the server layer for processing.

In a simplified example of a pizza-ordering system, this tier would include boxes for usernames and passwords, which the user would fill out when logging in to the Web application. This tier then passes the requested instructions to the logic tier, which in turn, manipulates the database to send back results to the presentation layer.

Data Access Layer

The data layer is the place where your application will store all of its information. It also enables you to do transactions and perform other processes on the data.

The Data Access Layer consists of logic components that abstract the functions needed to access your underlying data store. This centralizes these functions and makes it easier to configure and maintain the application.

The Business Layer and the Presentation Layer communicate with the Data Layer through a data bridge, which is an abstraction that manages the relationship between the different layers. The data helpers can include utilities and library functions to increase database efficiency and reduce the need for Service Agent and Logic Component layer development. This helps you minimize your code footprint and improve application performance. This can be accomplished by implementing key patterns such as Dependency Inversion and using custom entities. You can also choose to implement a separate DAL for each of your databases, which allows the DAL to adapt to changes in storage structures.

Database Layer

The database layer, or persistence layer, consists of a set of stored procedures that retrieve and update data. This layer hides the complexity of a database from the business layer.

This tier defines the structure of database tables at the conceptual level. This allows application developers to think about objects and their attributes instead of referring to table names and columns.

In one-tier architecture, the user interface, business, and data layers are all unified within a single software package (such as an MP3 player or MS Office). This can be cost efficient and scalable if there is only one application and data source supported.

However, if the data is shared with other users, this approach can lead to duplication of efforts and code. 3-Tier architecture solves this problem by separating the layers and enabling the end-user to interact with an application server that then communicates with a separate database system. This approach offers enhanced scalability and security.

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